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This is due to the reservoir effect and is caused both by the delay in exchange rates between atmospheric CO2 and ocean bicarbonate, and the dilution effect caused by the mixing of surface waters with deep ocean waters (Mangerud 1972).
Deep ocean water is depleted in radiocarbon so it reduces the activity of surface waters. Radiocarbon spends a comparatively short time in the atmosphere.
This is described in the pretreatment section of these pages.
Results are given of a systematic survey of differences in the isotopic composition of carbon and oxygen of modern mollusk shells from marine and continental environments.
Inorganic carbon comes from ocean water bicarbonate (which has a d13C value of close to -2 per mille wrt PDB), atmospheric carbon dioxide (-7 per mille) and fresh water bicarbonate (usually less than -8 per mille) (Keith et al., 1964).
Dissolved, metabolised or oxidised CO2 from terrestrial plant and humus reservoirs affect the organic sources for molluscs in food webs and the bicarbonate pool (Keith et al.., 1964).
There are a number of uncertainties for dating shell.
First, there has been uncertainty over exact reservoir corrections.
The effects of the upwelling zone upon shellfish 14C ages is particularly well documented along the coasts of California and Mexico (Berger, Taylor and Libby, 1966; Druffel and Williams, 1991).
The hard water effect refers also to the dilution of radioactivity in marine reservoirs but this time the diluting factor is dissolved bicarbonate originating from geological deposits of infinite age.
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